What are the Benefits of Worm Farm?

Sound soil is the establishment of a gainful nursery loaded with solid plants that are less inclined to illness. Adding natural issue to your dirt as manure or vermicast is perhaps the best thing you can do. At the point when you improve your dirt with manure it just continues improving and better – it turns out to be more bursting at the seams with advantageous worms and microorganisms. The different reward is that you lessen your loss by reusing your food scraps and plant materials into fertilizer.

Treating the soil OR WORM FARM – WHICH IS BEST FOR ME?


On the off chance that you don’t have a lot of room a worm ranch is an extraordinary choice: A worm ranch doesn’t smell whenever took care of appropriately and can fit on an overhang, carport or even inside. The advantages of worm ranches incorporate they:

  • Produce fluid and strong castings, the two of which can be blended in with water to create a fluid compost
  • Occupy almost no room
  • Are incredible for utilizing food scraps and kitchen squander

The restrictions can be they:

  • Can deal with a restricted measure of waste which may not be sufficient for enormous families, how many red wigglers do you need.
  • Are better for vegetable pieces and delicate vegetation, are not very great for garden squander

Treating the soil

Most treating the soil requires more space than worm cultivating, despite the fact that turning manure tumblers can likewise be utilized in moderately little spaces on any surface. Ideally set up treating the soil on uncovered earth.

Advantages of Composting Include:

  • A bigger assortment and volume of materials can be utilized including garden squander
  • In the event that you have enough ‘squander’ go for both fertilizer and worms!
  • In the event that you have enough space consider getting chickens too, as they can be a significantly quicker converter of food squander – they additionally give you sound, local, natural, unfenced eggs.


Fertilizing the soil is the vigorous (utilizing oxygen) breakdown of natural issue by gainful miniature life forms like microbes and growths. What would we be able to use to make fertilizer? The dependable guideline is ‘Whatever once lived can transform into fertilizer’


  • A – Aliveness – fertilizer is a ‘living life form’ loaded with worms and solid organisms
  • D – Diversity – blend in an assortment of fixings: eg food scraps, dry leaves, fine wood, mulch, grass, hair, spices and so on.
  • A – Aeration – circulate air through your fertilizer routinely, with a winding blending apparatus
  • M-Moisture – keep fertilizer clammy consistently


  1. Position the receptacle in a very much depleted spot (sun or shade is OK)
  2. Put a layer in the base of the container, around 200-300mm (4″- 6″) profound, of high carbon material, for example finely hacked woody mulch, verdant twiggy materials or ‘woodland fines.’
  3. Water this layer well
  4. Include 2 or 3 scoop fulls of rich manure, or dazzling dark, alive soil from your nursery. This ‘seeds’ your fertilizer with the aliveness that accomplishes all the work
  5. For each option of food scraps, include a similar measure of ‘woodland fines’ or slashed little woody twigs and leaves, ie 1 basin of food scraps to 1 pail of mulch
  6. Blend in with a winding instrument and watch that the whole load is soggy
  7. Food scraps must not be left uncovered on a superficial level. Continuously spread surface with a slender layer of ‘woodland fines’ or cleaved little woody twigs and leaves, this lessens flies. At that point spread the surface with a ‘cover’ (eg hessian sack) to keep the load damp and dim
  8. Include different fixings normally eg fertilizers, vacuum substance, hair, spices, weeds, grass, soil
  9. Include a teaspoon of dolomite ( Worm Farm and Compost Conditioner) week after week, to adjust acridity
  10. At the point when your receptacle is full it needs to develop for 6 two months. Keep this developing canister wet and blend it and include a little dolomite and pelletised excrement, week after week
  11. You can begin another canister for your proceeding with gracefully of new food scraps once your old one is full.

Utilizing COMPOST

  • Fertilizer is prepared to utilize when it is dim and smells gritty (there is no sharp alkali smell)
  • Spot the fertilizer around the DRIP-LINE of plants
  • Get the fertilizer far from the stems of plants


The following are three of the most widely recognized issues individuals have with their manure:

Issue 1:


Cure: Increase AERATION

  • Include more coarse material
  • Blend the store considerably more routinely with a winding blending device
  • Include a small bunch of dolomite, ( Worm Farm and Compost Conditioner)

Issue 2:



  • Include more NITROGEN material eg excrements, youthful grass clippings, blood and bone and so on
  • Check the MOISTURE level ( evaporate stacks don’t warm!) include more water when blending
  • Blend the load all the more consistently with winding blending apparatus
  • Include a small bunch of dolomite, ( Worm Farm and Compost Conditioner)

Issue 3:

Drawing in VERMIN


  • Put little work chicken wire on the ground under manure canister and overlap up the sides and tie, or spot a bit of level lady metal sheet on ground (drill at least 50 seepage gaps) and spot container on head of metal sheet.
  • Continuously spread the outside of the load with a hessian sack or something comparative and keep the cover on
  • Blend the stack all the more routinely with a winding blending instrument to build air circulation (vermin don’t care for an aggravation!)
  • Keep the store clammy (vermin don’t care for a soggy domain!)
  • Include a modest bunch of dolomite ( Worm Farm and Compost Conditioner)
  • Diminish the measure of cooked meat and bread being added to the stack

Best Compact Utility Tractors

Rustic life is in every case better when you have the best reduced farm truck in the shed. In any case, what is the best minimal farm hauler? The appropriate response relies completely on the proposed use, as the conservative farm hauler is among the most different in degree and scale. As per the American Society of Agricultural Engineers, a smaller farm hauler commonly weighs 4,000 pounds or less, has a three-point hitch and somewhere in the range of 40 and 60 torque. Most conservative work vehicles can lift more than 2,000 pounds with the loader and are sufficiently large to effortlessly deal with roughage gear. Something of a “Goldilocks Model,” the best minimal farm hauler is neither too large nor excessively little.

Cutting, street support and snow expulsion are among the most well known uses nowadays, yet nerve racking, stump evacuation, digging, field improvement and a wide range of fence work are likewise in the blend. The following is our rundown the best reduced farm vehicle decisions out available today, and enthusiasts of the brands will see that every one of the significant produces has a solid appearing among one of the most mainstream bits of rural hardware in America.

1. John Deere 4066M Heavy Duty

The With a turbocharged diesel motor, eHydrostatic Transmission and standard mid-and back hydrodynamics, the John Deere 4066M Heavy Duty is among the best minimal work vehicles out there today. With 65.9 strength in the motor and 52 pull in the PTO, the Big Green Machine has Category 1, Category 2 and three-point hitch alternatives. Lift limit of the 24-inch behind connection arms is 2,500 pounds and the complete open-taxi unit tips the scales at 4,255 pounds with a wheelbase of 73 inches. A key element of the eHydro transmission is boundlessly factor ground speeds in each range, which permits the administrator better match speed to the activity. No grasping makes for quicker course changes, and Twin Touch foot pedals give snappy and simple forward/invert activity. Voyage control is standard over the models. Different highlights incorporate wraparound-style wide-point halogen headlights and bumper mounted working lights. Learn more here.

2. Reduced Farmall 45C CVT

The Case IH group of reduced work vehicles runs the extent as far as size and alternatives, and sparkling among them is the adaptable Compact Farmall 45C CVT. With a 45-drive motor and 36-torque PTO, Big Red highlights a CVT transmission and accompanies or without an administrator taxi. Intended to work with the L350A as a viable loader, lift limit at the rotate pin is 2,000 pounds with 105 creeps of lift tallness. Controlled by a three chamber motor with a 13-gallon fuel tank, plan drops by method of Fiat Powertrain Technologies. The CVT transmission offers smooth, consistent speed changes through fluctuating conditions with only a solitary, press-and-go pedal, journey control for cutting applications and a programmed modification for conveyance of wanted speed and match load conditions. All out machine weight is 4,190 pounds without the taxi and 4,920 pounds with. Learn more here.

3. Kubota L2501

Enormous and agile, the Kubota L2501 is among the best of the littler reduced farm haulers for summed up use. With a 24.8 strength motor and 20.5 torque at the PTO, the 2,425-pound unit is the ideal size for somebody searching for something somewhat lighter. The three-chamber motor runs in conjunct with a 10-gallon fuel tank. The Kubota L2501 highlights a Category I 3-point hitch with 1,918 pounds of lift limit at all point and 1,389 pounds at 24 crawls behind the lift focuses. The two-haggle wheel drive models highlight a rigging shift transmission framework with eight forward and four opposite, while the HST four-wheel drive model offers a hydrostatic transmission and three-territory speed. Generally length of the machine is 110.6 crawls of orange, with 55.1 creeps in width and 91.7 creeps in tallness. Learn more here.

4. Massey Ferguson 1740E

Try not to be amazed if the expression, “Massey Ferguson 1740E” comes up when requested to name the best reduced utility work vehicle. Net motor torque comes in at 38.5 with 32.7 at the PTO, driven by the Shibaura, 1.5 liter, three-chamber, fluid cooled diesel motor. The Massey Ferguson 1740E is among the more current models wearing the 8×8 Synchro Shuttle or three-territory HST transmission with open focus hydrodynamics. The 8×8 Synchro Shuttle offers faster directional changes with simply the push of a grasp and pull of a switch. This makes this specific unit incredible for weighty ground-drawing in work, as third and fourth riggings are synchronized dispensing with the need to stop to move. Intended to deal with of all shapes and sizes tasks the same, three-point hitch lift limit at 24 creeps behind the pins is 1,598 pounds. Loader choices incorporate either the pin-type or slide steer coupler, 60-inch can, the 72 inch basin, and 38 inch bed forks. Learn more here.

5. New Holland Boomer 55 Cab (T4B)

Enormous Blue keeps coming through with its Boomer arrangement of work vehicles, and the Boomer 55 Cab is among the ranchers’ top choices. With 55 drive and an evaluated speed rpm of 2,600, the three-chamber motor has an emanations level of T4B Final running off a 12.4-gallon fuel tank. A free electro-pressure driven commitment PTO carries 46.7 strength to any activity you need finished. This model offers some decision as far as transmission with a 16×16 rigging choice, or the three territory hydrostatic/double pedal. The New Holland Boomer 55 Cab likewise has a synchro style gear/transport framework with wet, multi-plate brakes. Three-point lift limit at ball closes is 2,756 pounds with 2,116 pounds at 24 inches. Among the greater units inside the smaller farm truck gathering, the New Holland Boomer 55 Cab has a 73.2-inch wheelbase and is 128.1 creeps of blue and white start to finish and 69.1 inches wide. Stature to head of taxi is 94 inches, and the unit tips the scales at 4,194 pounds. Learn more here.

The best reduced farm hauler is the one that meets your requirements, and as one of the more differing groupings of work vehicles there exists a wide scope of sizes and shapes. As usual, information is power, and the best reduced farm hauler brings that by the container load.

How to Feed Your Chickens

Feed Your Chickens

Feed is a consideration for backyard poultry.

Not everyone has easy access to a farm store where they can buy bulk feed, and in that case you’re gonna wanna know a farmer or mix feed yourself.

You’re just gonna have to have a reliable source and supply of well balanced poultry ration.

For maximum efficiency just keep ’em on the balanced poultry ration.

But most backyard producers are also going to put in some kitchen scraps and other things like that into the coop and the run area for chickens to kind of entertain and eat and compost in place.

There’s a lot of different types of best chicken feeders on the market.

Make sure you have a lot, at least about three inches, linearly, of space at the feeder per bird, in your flack, otherwise that competition can cause stress with the birds and stressed birds tend to have poor outcomes.

Feed wastage is an issue with chickens.

And if you have a feeder with a grate that prevents the chicken from kind of moving its head from side to side and scooping feed out of the feeder and out onto the ground, that’s gonna be of benefit to you.

It’ll save you a little bit of feed, and it’ll save you a little bit of cost.

Water is important.

Clean water is important.

Fill your water fountain every time it’s getting close to be being low.

Don’t wait until it’s bone dry.

Clean out the inside of it.

If you have any kind of algae growth, any kind of dirty residue on the inside, make sure those chickens have an adequate supply of really palatable clean water, in both the summer and in the winter.

Theaters and waters should be placed at a height of about level with the chicken’s back.

That’s also gonna help prevent a lot of spillage and spoilage of your water and your grain.

And lastly you’re gonna wanna provide a free choice supplement of calcium and grit.

The most popular choice of calcium supplement is oyster shell, pretty widely available at farm stores.

Grit is any kind of course rock that is in the crap of the chickens to break down larger particulates that they take in.

Especially if you’re feeding scratch grains and whole grains, you’re gonna wanna make sure that they have grit to help digest those foods.

Collect those things soon after they’re laid.

Most eggs are laid in the morning.

And usually almost all of them are laid by 10 AM.

So if you can collect right away, then you’re gonna avoid the amount of time that the egg is out there in the nest box with the chance of getting soiled or frozen or anything like that.

So collect eggs frequently.

Make sure you’ve got an adequate amount of clean bedding.




Mulching and Watering Frozen Trees


Mulching the soil under the crown of a tree, as soon as the soil thaws or a little later, while the soil is moist, is the primary agricultural practice not only for maintaining moisture in the soil, but also the main condition for the good development of beneficial microflora and microfauna, and especially earthworms. Earthworms not only create soil humus, but roots grow well along the paths of earthworms, water and air pass through, and when dying off, the worms themselves become a good food for the roots of fruit trees.

It is necessary to mulch (fill) with a layer of 10-15 cm, preferably with rotted (with earthworms) or semi-rotted manure or compost. If this is not the case, then you can mulch with grass, straw, hay, leaves, but not sawdust, which greatly acidifies the soil and takes nitrogen away from it, so the sawdust must be used for composting.

On old trees, in addition to mulching, it is also good to make deep fertilizing with organic fertilizers, for which you need to dig 4-8 pits around the crown perimeter 50x50x50cm in size and lay well-rotted (with earthworms) manure or compost in them. As it decays and subsides, manure must also be added to the soil level. Such pits should be watered abundantly and regularly. All this will contribute to the rejuvenation of the old root system of the tree, its good nutrition and the rapid restoration of frozen trees.

Top dressing with mineral fertilizers in May-June is not necessary, since they increase the concentration of the soil solution, which makes it difficult for it to move from roots to leaves along frozen wood vessels.

With regard to the actual watering itself, you need to know that it must be ABUNISHING so that the soil under the crown of the tree is well moist throughout the entire root layer (up to 50-60 cm), not frequent, but regular as needed. If the soil is not mulched, then the soil crust formed after irrigation must be destroyed by hoeing so that the water does not evaporate through the capillaries.

Gardeners need to know that the main attention for good care (pruning, mulching, watering, combating diseases and pests, weeds, etc.) for fruit trees should be paid at the beginning of the growing season (May-June), so that the tree forms a powerful a canopy of healthy (not damaged by diseases and pests, dark green, dense) leaves, which is the key to good growth, fruiting, restoration of frozen trees, their high winter hardiness and longevity.

Mowed Grass Compost

compost heap

Compost is one of the purest and most valuable fertilizers. Compost will not only provide balanced nutrition for plants, improve the structure of the soil and saturate it with micro and macro elements, making it air and moisture permeable.

Many lawn owners are faced with the problem of disposing of cut grass. If your lawn is located on 1-2 acres, this is not a problem, the grass can be taken out, used as mulch for flower beds and vegetable beds, and if you have a large lawn and you are a real owner who does not lose anything, then you need to create compost heap or better equip a compost pit.

The compost heap, as a rule, serves for the disposal of plant residues: weeds, food waste, leaves, in our case – grass cuttings. Non-plant waste, whole branches, meat waste and fish should not be added to the compost, they will rot badly and create an unpleasant odor on the site, and will also attract rodents: mice and rats.

Composting can be done in two ways: a compost heap and a compost pit.

To create a compost heap, select a shaded area and begin composting on the soil surface. I consider this method not effective. Since the appearance of the heap spoils the whole “landscape” of the site and there is a possibility of the appearance of moles on your site. Because, like worms, recycling waste are located above the soil surface and the mole will dig on top to feast on them.

The compost pit is a structure, in my case 2 * 3 m, deepened by 50 cm and fenced with shields 1 m high. But this is my option, you can create yourself any compost pit you want yourself. The advantages of this type of utilization of organic waste, I believe: waste does not spread over the heap, it is held back by counts; does not spoil the general appearance of the site, when covered with film and watering it rotts better and most importantly, when the mole wants to eat worms, it will climb into the pile from the bottom, because shields are dug into the ground.

The composting process is excellently accelerated by aeration – ventilation. To aerate the compost, you can stir it or stir it up with a pitchfork.

For composting waste, you should choose a shady place, preferably under the crowns of trees and away from the recreation area. I created a compost pit at the end of the site, in the bushes under the trees, where it is always cool.

Dry the freshly cut grass. Then spread it evenly over the entire area of ​​the compost heap. For best effect, sprinkle with a small layer of earth. This will help the worms to better recycle waste.

For a better composting process, it is advisable to water and cover the compost from time to time. At the same time, the compost will rot faster and worms will process it faster. In winter, throw more snow onto the compost heap to keep the heap free from freezing.

To decorate the compost pile, you can plant shrubs or short flowers on the pile.

Once every 2-3 years, I regularly select ready-made compost and bring it into the greenhouse and garden beds. To do this, I remove the upper non-decayed layer to a previously prepared place – a sheet of tin 2.5 by 4 m. After that, I choose the finished compost. After the compost is selected from the heap, I return back the non-rotten residues, water it abundantly and cover it with plastic wrap. I collect compost in late April – early May, when the ground is already frozen and my “prospectors” – the worms have not yet risen in a heap after the winter cold.

Protection of Conifers From Stem Pests

Stem Pests

In the spring, favorable conditions are formed for the mass distribution of stem pests of coniferous trees, in connection with which there is a frequent defeat of young plantings of spruces, pines and thuja. Small holes can be observed on the affected plants – passages on the trunk, resin begins to stand out from the damage, as a result of which the trunk becomes covered with resin streaks, the color of the needles changes from bright green to pale, in the summer you can observe the appearance of sawdust on the trunk and under the tree, you can also hear crackling is the result of the beetle’s work.

Stem pests are a large group of insects that feed on the tissues of the tree trunk. Under the bark and in the wood of the trunk and branches, they gnaw through passages that have a shape characteristic of each species. These are the larvae of beetles of the family of bark beetles, barbel beetles, golden beetles, as well as larvae of Hymenoptera from the family of horn-tails. Drills, grinders, etc. are of lesser importance.

First of all, weakened trees, as well as young plantings, are susceptible to damage, while the plants take root and adapt to a new place. Particular attention should be paid to young plantings in places where forests with conifers are located nearby, from which massive pest beetles can occur. For planting in such places, it is better to choose not dug, but healthy container plants with a good root system, which can be transplanted without damaging the roots and significantly weakening the plants.

The mass mating season of beetles is observed in May-June. The developmental cycle of larvae lasts 1.5-2 months. In some species, a repeated mating season is observed in July-August. At this time, it is necessary to carry out preventive treatments to protect the trees. When the first signs of infection appear, it is necessary to urgently take action, otherwise the affected plants quickly dry out and, with a massive defeat, die within one season.

Systemic preparations are used to protect plants from stem pests. For prophylactic purposes, beetles are sprayed during the mass summer (May-June, end of July-August once every two weeks) with a solution of 10 g per 10 liters of water from a sprayer along the crown of the plant and along the trunk until the entire surface is completely wetted. At the first signs of plant damage, watering is additionally carried out under the root with a solution of the drug at the rate of 30 g per 10 liters of water, a bucket of solution for 1 plant. You can also inject a high concentration drug from a syringe directly into the holes in the tree trunk. It is also necessary to provide the required care for the transplanted plants for their rapid survival and increase the natural level of pest resistance.

Coniferous plants processing rules

  • To destroy insects and larvae, use modern insecticides, when treating ticks – acaricides, against fungal diseases – fungicides. All preparations can be found in our garden goods store or in other similar ones.
  • When processing, always follow the accompanying drug instructions and do not experiment yourself with mixing different drugs and increasing the dosage.
  • Treat conifers such as spruce, pine and thuja in the early morning or evening in dry weather. The prepared solution should be absorbed into the sprayed bush or tree, therefore, in hot or cloudy weather (rain), it is not worth processing.
  • Try to carry out the treatment systematically if you notice the appearance of young and new pests (larvae), most likely the parasites have already managed to lay eggs earlier, and the fungi have spores. Alternate medications as resistance (addiction) may develop for the same drug.
  • Be sure to use personal protective equipment when processing ephedra, do not process in windy weather, and isolate pets for a while.

4 Mistakes When Planting Conifers

Planting Conifers

The optimal time for planting conifers continues, which are planted and transplanted not only in autumn, when it gets cooler, but also in spring, before the onset of hot weather.

So, conifers – what individual mistakes do gardeners make when planting them, what important requirements of each of the main crops do they ignore?

Mistake 1: breaking the earthen ball when landing

All conifers must be transplanted with a lump! If not preserved, the roots will dry out and die off. For better preservation of the coma, it is necessary to water it well on the eve of digging a tree or shrub.

Safety is achieved by quickly packing the earthen lump with sacking, matting or other materials and tying it with strong twine, wire, metal mesh. When planting a coniferous plant from a container, it is also well watered the day before and carefully removed from the container.

Only after installing the lump in the landing pit, it is carefully released from the packaging so as not to crumble. Some gardeners even prefer to leave the burlap in the soil (it will rot anyway), while removing the rigid fixation with wire, mesh or synthetic materials.

Mistake 2: landing pit mismatch

The planting area for conifers should be wider than the diameter of the coma and deeper than the height of the coma. Visually, it should look like this: the palm of an adult man should enter between the lump and the walls of the hole, and the root neck * should be at the level of the soil.

After installation in the planting hole, the air gaps are covered with soil for a specific coniferous species (more on this below). If there is none, then the earth that was taken out during the preparation of the landing pit. It is clear that in the latter case the plant will develop worse.

Mistake 3: backfilling the root collar

In the case of forced backfilling, it is necessary to free the plant from the ground to the level of the root collar, and if this is not possible, arrange air drainage. For this, a network of trenches is arranged in the root system zone, which are filled with stone.

Pipes are laid in the trenches, through which the outside air freely penetrates through the drainage to the root system. From above, the trenches are covered with earth. The distance between them should not exceed one meter, the width of each should not be less than 70 cm.

Mistake 4: ignoring the individual requirements of conifers

In order for your coniferous pet to develop well in a new place, it is important not to ignore its specific requirements, but to create optimal conditions for development.

Spruce planting conditions

  • choice of landing site: shaded; exclude areas with close groundwater;
  • backfill soil: turf, leafy soil, peat, sand (2: 2: 1: 1);
  • drainage is required: a layer of broken brick and sand 15-20 cm;
  • planting depth 50-70 cm;
  • exclude trampling and soil compaction, especially in near-trunk circles.

Cypress planting conditions

  • choice of landing site: partial shade, variegated forms – in the sun;
  • backfill soil: humus, leaf earth, peat, sand (3: 2: 1: 2);
  • drainage is required: a layer of broken brick and sand up to 20 cm;
  • planting depth 70 cm, less often up to 1 m.

Larch planting conditions

  • choice of landing site: open sunny places; for Japanese larch – partial shade;
  • backfill soil: leaf soil, peat, sand (3: 2: 1);
  • drainage only on heavy soils: a layer of broken brick up to 20 cm;
  • planting depth: 70-80 cm;
  • plants are planted in a permanent place at the age of 4-5 years;
  • planting time – before bud break;
  • preservation of young thin roots with mycorrhiza.

Planting conditions for junipers

  • choice of landing site: sunny places;
  • backfill soil: peat, turf soil, sand (2: 1: 1); the ratio may vary depending on the species: for example, the Siberian juniper prefers sandy soils, the Cossack juniper grows well on limestone, the
  • virginian juniper – on clay;
  • drainage is required: a layer of broken brick and sand 15-20 cm;
  • planting depth 70 cm, with soil filling in the pit.

Fir planting conditions

  • choice of landing site: shady places;
  • seedlings take root better at the age of 5-10 years;
  • backfill soil: clay, leafy earth or humus, peat, sand (2: 3: 1: 1);
  • drainage is required on heavy soils: a layer of broken brick or rubble 20 cm;
  • planting depth 50-60 cm; the root collar should remain at ground level.

Pine planting conditions

  • choice of landing site: open areas;
  • young seedlings under 5 years old take root well;
  • backfill soil: turf, sand or clay (2: 1);
  • drainage is required on heavy soils: a layer of broken brick, gravel or sand 20 cm;
  • planting depth 0.8-1 m.

Yew planting conditions

  • choice of landing site: semi-shady, shady places;
  • backfill soil: turf, peat, sand (3: 2: 2);
  • drainage is required: a layer of broken brick and sand 20 cm;
  • planting depth: 60-70 cm.

Tui planting conditions

  • choice of landing site: sunny and semi-shady places;
  • backfill soil: turf or leaf land, peat, sand (2: 1: 1);
  • drainage is required: a layer of broken brick and sand 20 cm;
  • planting depth: 60-80 cm.

Planting needs to be mulched to retain moisture in the soil and get rid of weeds. Repeat mulching every spring (or spring and fall) on very dry sandy or calcareous soils. You can lay a decorative layer of long-lasting gravel or crushed bark mulch on a special spunbond fabric that completely protects against weeds.

Under conifers, you can mulch needles, preferably large pine needles – it provides air flow to the roots. In addition, half-over-mature needles always contain mycelium. When you dig, you can even see it with the eye – these are white threads. Among the mushrooms, there are useful and even necessary for plants. Indeed, many conifers are mycorrhizal plants; they live in symbiosis with mushrooms.